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This chart is a list of the most commonly found extensions, what type of file they are and what program if any they are associated with.

.$$$ Temporary file
.$$A OS/2 program file
.$$F OS/2 database file
.$$S OS/2 spreadsheet file
.$D$ OS/2 planner file
.$DB DBASE IV temporary file
.$ED Microsoft C temporary editor file.
.$VM Microsoft Windows temporary file for virtual managers.
._DD Norton disk doctor recovery file.
._DM Nuts n Bolts disk minder recovery file.
.--- File used to backup sys, ini, dat, and other important files from Windows 3.1 and above.
.075 Ventura Publisher 75x75 dpi screen characters
.085 Ventura Publisher 85x85 dpi screen characters
.091 Ventura Publisher 91x91 dpi screen characters
.096 Ventura Publisher 96x96 dpi screen characters
.0B Pagemaker printer font LineDraw enhanced characters.
.1ST File used by some software manufacturers to represent a file that should be read first before starting the program.
.2GR File used in Windows 3.x to display the graphics on older 286 and 386 computers.
.386 Virtual machine support files for the 386 enhanced mode.
.3GR File used in Windows 3.x to display the graphics on later 386, 486 and Pentium computers.
.4SW 4DOS Swap file
A ADA program file or UNIX library
.A3W MacroMedia Authorware 3.5 file
.ABK Autobackup file used with Corel Draw 6 and above.
.ABR Brush file for Adobe Photoshop

.ACT Adobe Photoshop Color table file.

.AD After Dark file.
.ADF Adapter description files.
.ADM After Dark screen saver module.
.ADR After Dark randomizer
.AI Adobe Illustrator file.
.AIF Auto Interchange File Format (AIFF) Audio file.
.ANI Windows 95 / Windows 98 / Windows NT animated mouse cursor file.

.ANS ANSI text file.
.ARJ Compressed file can be used with Winzip / Pkzip.

.ASC ASCII Text file
.ASF Sort for Advanced Streaming Format, file developed by Microsoft. The .ASF file is generally a movie player and can be open with software such as Windows Media Player.
.ASP Microsoft FrontPage Active Server Pages. To open these files use your internet browser.
.AVI Windows Movie file.
.BAK Backup file used for important windows files usually used with the System.ini and the Win.ini.
.BAS QBasic program and or Visual Basic Module.
.BAT Batch file that can perform tasks for you in dos, like a macro.

.BFC Microsoft Windows 95 / Windows 98 Briefcase file.

.BG Backgammon game file.
.BIN Translation tables for code pages other than the standard 437.
.BK2 Word Perfect for Windows Backup file
.BK3 Word Perfect for Windows Backup file
.BK4 Word Perfect for Windows Backup file
.BK5 Word Perfect for Windows Backup file
.BK6 Word Perfect for Windows Backup file
.BK7 Word Perfect for Windows Backup file
.BK8 Word Perfect for Windows Backup file
.BK9 Word Perfect for Windows Backup file
.BMP Graphical Bit Mapped File used in Windows Paintbrush.

.BNK Sim City Backup

.BPS Microsoft Works Word Processor File.
.BPT Corel Draw Bitmap master file
.BV1 Word Perfect for Windows Backup file
.BV2 Word Perfect for Windows Backup file
.BV3 Word Perfect for Windows Backup file
.BV4 Word Perfect for Windows Backup file
.BV5 Word Perfect for Windows Backup file
.BV6 Word Perfect for Windows Backup file
.BV7 Word Perfect for Windows Backup file
.BV8 Word Perfect for Windows Backup file
.BV9 Word Perfect for Windows Backup file
.BWP BatteryWatch pro file.
.C C file used with the C programming language.
.CAB Cabinet file used in Windows 95 and Windows 98 that contains all the windows files and drivers. Information about how to extract a .CAB file can be found on document CH000363.

.CAL Windows Calendar, Supercalculator4 file or Supercal spreadsheet.
.CBL COBOL Program File
.CBT Computer Based Training files.
.CDA CD Audio Player Track.
.CDR Corel Draw Vector file.

.CFB Comptons Multimedia file
.CFG Configuration file
.CFL Corel flowchart file

.CFM Corel FontMaster file / Cold Fusion Template file / Visual dBASE windows customer form
.CHK Scandisk file which is used to back up information that scandisk has found to be bad, found in C root. Because the information within these files are corrupted or reported as bad by Scandisk it is perfectly fine to delete these files, providing you are currently not missing any information. Additional information about scandisk can be found on our scandisk page.

.CL Generic LISP source code.
.CL3 Easy CD Creator layout file.
.CL4 Easy CD Creator layout file.
.CLA Java Class file.
.CLG Disk catalog database
.CLK Corel R.A.V.E. animation file.

.CLL Crick software clicker file
.CLO Cloe image
.CLP Windows Clipboard / Quattro Pro clip art / Clipper 5 compiler script
.CLR WinEdit Colorization word list / 1st reader binary color screen image / PhotStyler color definition
.CLS Visual Basic Class module / C++ Class definition
.CMD Windows Script File also OS/2 command file.
.CMV Corel Movie file.

.CNT Help file (.hlp) Contents (and other file contents)
.CPL Windows 95 / Windows 98 / Windows NT control panel icons.

.CNE Configuration file that builds .COM files.
.CNF Configuration file.
.COB COBOL source code file.
.COD FORTRAN Compiler program code
.COM File that can be executed.
.CPE Fax cover page file
.CPI Code Page Information or Microsoft Windows applet control panel file
.CPP C++ source code file.
.CRD Windows Card file.
.CSV Comma-Separated Variable file. Used primary with databases and spreadsheets / Image file used with CopuShow

.CUR Windows Mouse Cursor.
.CVS Canvas drawing file
.CXX C++ program file or Zortech C++ file
.DAT Data file, generally associated or extra data for a program to use.
.DB Paradox database file / Progress database file
.DB2 dBase II file
.DBC Microsoft Visiual Foxpro database container

.DBF dBase II,III,III+,IV / LotusWorks database.
.DBK dBase databse backup / Orcad schematic capture backup file
.DBM Cold Fusion template
.DBO dBase IV compiled program file
.DBQ Paradox memo
.DBT dBase database text file
.DBV Flexfile memo field file
.DBW DataBoss database file
.DBX Database file / DataBeam Image / MS Visual Foxpro Table
.DEV Device Driver
.DIF Document Interchange Format; VisiCalc
.DLL Dynamic Link Library; Allow executable code modules to be loaded on demand, linked at run time, and unloaded when not needed. Windows uses these files to support foreign languages and international/nonstandard keyboards.
.DMO Demo file
.DMP Dump file
.DMD Visual dBASE data module
.DMF Delusion/XTracker Digital Music File
.DMO Demo file
.DMP Dump file
.DMS Compressed archive file
.DOC Microsoft Word Windows/DOS / LotusWorks word processor Windows/DOS /PF S:First Choice Windows/DOS DOT MS Word Windows/DOS.
.DOS Text file and DOS Specification Info
.DOT Microsoft Word Template (Macro).

.DRV Device driver files that attach the hardware to Windows. The different drivers are system, keyboard, pointing devices, sound, printer/ plotter, network, communications adapter.
.DRW Micrografx draw/graph files.
.DT_ Macintosh Data File Fork
.DTA Data file
.DTD SGML Document definition file
.DTF Q&A database
.DTM DigiRekker module
.DTP SecurDesk! Desktop / Timeworks Publisher Text Document / Pressworks Template file
.DUN Dialup Networking exported file.
.DX Document Imaging file / Digital data exchange file

.DXB Drawing interchange binary file
.DXF Autocad drawing interchange format file
.DXN Fujitsu dexNet fax document
.DXR Macromedia director projected movie file
.DYN Lotus 1-2-3 file
.DWG AutoCad Drawing Database
.EEB Button bar for Equation Editor in Word Perfect for Windows
.EFT CHIWRITER high resolution screen characters
.EGA EGA screen characters for Ventura Publisher
.ELG Event List text file used with Prosa
.EMS Enhanced Menu System configuration file for PC Tools
.EMU IRMA Workstation for Windows emulation
.ENC ADW Knowledge Ware Encyclopedia
.END Corel Draw Arrow Definition file
.ENG Sprint dictionary file engine
.ENV Word Perfect for Windows environment file.
.EPG Exported PaGe file used with DynaVox
.EPS Encapsulated Postscript, with embedded TIFF preview images.
.EQN Word Perfect for Windows Equation file
.ERD Entity Relation Diagram graphic file
.ERM Entity Relation Diagram model file
.ERR Error log file
.ESH Extended Shell Batch file
.EVT Event file scheduler file for PC Tools
.EX3 Device driver for Harvard graphics 3.0
.EXC QEMM exclude file from optimization file or Rexx program file
.EXE Executable file.
.EXT Extension file for Norton Commander
.FDF Adobe Acrobat Forms Document.
.FF AGFA CompuGraphics outline font description.
.FFA Microsoft Fast Find file.

.FFF GUS PnP bank / defFax fax document
.FFL Microsoft Fast Find file / PrintMaster Gold form file

.FFO Microsoft Fast Find file

.FFT DCA/FFT final form text
.FFX Microsoft Fast Find file

.FON Font files to support display and output devices.
.FR3 dBase IV renamed dBase III+ form
.FRF FontMonger Font
.FRG dBase IV uncompiled report
.FRK Compressed zip file used with Apple Macinotsh computers.

.FRM Form file used with various programs / Microsoft Visual Basic Form / FrameMaker document / FrameBuilder file / Oracle executable form / Word Perfect Merge form / DataCAD symbol report file
.FRO dBase IV compiled report / FormFlow file
.FRP PerForm Pro Plus Form
.FRS WordPerfect graphics driver
.FRT FoxPro report file
.FRX Microsoft Visual basic binary form file / FoxPro report file

.FRZ FormFlow file
.GIF CompuServe Graphics Interchange Format.
.GR2 286 grabbers that specify which font to use with DOS and Windows.

.GR3 386 grabbers that specify which font to use with DOS and Windows.

.GRA Microsoft Flight simulator graphics file

.GRB Microsoft MS-DOS shell monitor

.GRF Micrografx draw/graph files.
.GRP Microsoft Program Group.

.GZ Compressed Archive file for GZip
.HBK Mathcad handbook file
.HDL Procomm Plus alternate download file listing
.HDR Procomm Plus message header
.HDX Help index
.HEX Hex dump
.HFI GEM HP font info
.HGL HP graphics language graphic
.HH C++ Header
.HHH Precompiled Header for Power C
.HHP Help data for Procomm Plus
.HLP Files that contain the Help feature used in windows, cannot be read from DOS.

.HQX Apple Macintosh Binhex text conversion file.

.HSQ Data files associated with the Qaz Trojan.
.HSS Photoshop Hue/Saturation information.
.HST History file / Procomm Plus History File / Host file.
.HTA Hypertext Application (run applications from HTML document).

.HTM Web page files containing HTML or other information found on the Internet.


.ICA Citrix file / IOCA graphics file
.ICB Targa Bitmap
.ICC Kodak printer image
.ICE Archive file
.ICL Icon library file
.ICM Image Color Matching profile file
.ICN Microsoft Windows Icon Manager.

.ICO Microsoft Windows Icondraw / Icon.

.ID Disk identification file.
.IDB Microsoft developer intermediate file, used with Microsoft Visual Studio

.IDD MIDI instruments definition
.IDE Integrated Development Environment configuration file
.IDF MIDI instruments drivers file
.IDQ Internet data query file
.IDX Index file
.IFF IFF/LBM (Amiga) used by Computer Eyes frame grabber.
.IMG GEM/IMG (Digital Research) or Ventura Publisher bitmap graphic
.INF Information file that contains customization options.
.INI Files that initialize Windows and Windows apps.
.IPF Installer Script File / OS/2 online documentation for Microsoft source files.
.ISO Compressed file used for an exact duplicate of a CD. .ISO files can be extracted or opened such programs as Win Image that can be found on our shareware download section.

.IWA IBM Writing Assistant Text file.
.JAS Graphic
.JPG Graphic commonly used on the Internet and capable of being opened by most modern image editors.
.JS JavaScript file.
.JSB Henter-Joyce Jaws script binary file
.JSD eFAX jet suite document
.JSE JScript encoded script file
.JSH Henter-Joyce Jaws script header file
.JSL PaintShop pro file
.JSM Henter-Joyce Jaws script message file
.JSP Java server page
.JSS Henter-Joyce Jaws script source file
.JT JT fax file
.JTF JPEG tagged Interchange format file
.JTK Sun Java toolkit file
.JTP JetForm file
.JW Justwrite text file
.JWL Justwrite text file library
.JZZ Jazz spreadsheet
.KAR Karaoke File used with some audio players.
.LGC Program Use Log File (for Windows Program Use Optimization).
.LGO Contains the code for displaying the screen logo.
.LOG Contains the process of certain steps, such as when running scandisk it will usually keep a scandisk.log of what occurred.
.LNK HTML link file used with Microsoft Internet Explorer.

.LWP Lotus Wordpro 96/97 file.
.MAC Macintosh macpaint files.
.MBX Microsoft Outlook Express mailbox file.

.MD Compressed Archive file
.MDA Microsoft Access Add-in / Microsoft Access 2 Workgroup.
.MDB Microsoft Access Database / Microsoft Access Application.
.MDE Microsoft Access Database File
.MDF Menu definition file
.MDL Digitrakker Music Module / Rational Rose / Quake model file

.MDM Telix Modem Definition
.MDN Microsoft Access Blank Database Template
.MDP Microsoft Developer Studio Project
.MDT Microsoft Access Add-in Data
.MDW Microsoft Access Workgroup Information
.MDX dBase IV Multiple Index
.MDZ Microsoft Access Wizard Template
.MEB WordPerfect Macro Editor bottom overflow file
.MED WordPerfect Macro Editor delete save / OctaMed tracker module
.MEM WordPerfect Macro Editor macro / Memory File of variables
.MID Midi orchestra files that are used to play with midi sounds built within the sound card.

.MIX Power C object file / Multiplayer Picture file (Microsoft Photodraw 2000 & Microsoft Picture It!) / Command & Conquer Movie/Sound file

.MOD Winoldap files that support (with grabbers) data exchange between DOS apps and Windows apps.
.MOV File used with Quick Time to display a move.

.MP1 MPEG audio stream, layer I
.MP2 MPEG audio stream, layer II
.MP3 MPEG audio stream, layer III; High compressed audio files generally used to record audio tracks and store them in a decent sized file available for playback. See our MP3 page for additional information.

.MPG MPEG movie file.
.MSN Microsoft Network document / Decent mission file

.MTF Windows metafile.
.MTH Derive Math file
.MTM Sound file / MultiTracker music module
.MTV Picture file
.MTW Minitab data file
.MU Quattro menu
.MUL Ultima Online game
.MUP Music publisher file
.MUS Audio file
.MVB Database file / Microsoft multimedia viewer file

.MVE Interplay video file

.MVF Movie stop frame file
.MWP Lotus Wordpro 97 smartmaster file
.MXD ArcInfo map file
.MXT Microsoft C Datafile

.MYD Make your point presentation file.
.N64 Nintendo 64 Emulator ROM image.

.NA2 Netscape Communicator address book.
.NAB Novell Groupwise address book

.NAP Napster Music security definition file.
.NDF NeoPlanet Browser file
.NDX Indexed file for most databases.
.NES Nintendo Entertainment system ROM image.

.NIL Norton guide online documentation
.NGF Enterasys Networks NetSight file.

.NHF Nero HFS-CD compilation or a general Nero file
.NIL Norton icon lybrary file.
.NLB Oracle 7 data file
.NLD ATI Radeon video driver file,

.NMI SwordSearcher file.
.NON LucasArts Star Wars - Tie fighter mouse options file.

.NOW Extension commonly used for readme text files.
.NRA Nero Audio CD file.
.NRB Nero CD-ROM boot file.
.NS2 Lotus Notes 2 database,
.NS5 Lotus Notes Domino file,
.NSO NetStudio easy web graphics file.
.NT Windows NT startup file.
.NUM File used with some Software Manufactures to store technical support numbers or other phone numbers, should be readable from DOS and or Windows.
.OCA Control Typelib Cache.
.OCX Object Linking and Embedding (OLE) control extension.
.OLB Object library
.OLD Used for backups of important files incase they are improperly updated or deleted.
.OLE Object Linking and Embedding object file
.OLI Olivetti text file
.ORI Original file.
.PAB Personal Address Book, file used with Microsoft Outlook.

.PB WinFax Pro phone book file
.PBD PowerBuilder dynamic library / Faxit phone book file
.PBF Turtle Beach Pinnacle bank file
.PBK Microsoft phonebook file

.PBL PowerBuilder library file
.PBM UNIX portable bitmap fuke
.PBR PowerBuilder resource
.PBI Profiler binary input file
.PBM PBM portable bit map graphic
.PBO Profiler binary output
.PBT Profiler binary table
.PCX Microsoft Paint & PC Paintbrush Windows/DOS.

.PDA Bitmap graphic file
.PDB TACT data file
.PDD Adobe PhotoDeluxe Image.

.PDF Adobe Acrobat Reader file which can only be read by Adobe Acrobat (to get file downloaded Adobe Acrobat from our Download Page.

.PDL Borland C++ project description language file.

.PDS Graphic file / Pldasm source code file.
.PDV Paintbrush printer driver.
.PDW Professional Draw document.
.PIC Picture / Viewer Frame Class.
.PIF Program Information File that configures a DOS app to run efficiently in windows.
.PJF Paintjet soft font file.
.PL Harvard palette file / PERL program file

.PL3 Harvard chart palette
.PLB Foxpro library / LogoShow Screensaver file
.PLC Lotus Add-in
.PLD PLD2 source file
.PLG REND386 / AVRIL file
.PLI Oracle 7 data description
.PLL Prelinked library
.PLM DisorderTracker2 module
.PLN WordPerfect spreadsheet file
.PLR Descent Pilot file

.PLS WinAmp MPEG playlist file / DisorderTracker 2 Sample file / Shoutcast file / MYOB data file
.PLT AutoCAD HPGL vector graphic plotter file / Gerber sign-making software file / Betley's CAD Microstation driver configuration for plotting
.PLY Autodesk polygon
.PP Compressed archive file.
.PP4 Picture Publisher.
.PP5 Picture Publisher.
.PPA Power Point Add-in.
.PPB WordPerfect Print preview button bar.
.PPD PostScript Printer description.
.PPF Turtle Beach Pinnacle program file.
.PPI Microsoft PowerPoint graphic file.

.PPL Harvard (now Serif) Polaroid Palette Plus ColorKey Driver.
.PPM PBM Portable Pixelmap Graphic.
.PPO Clipper Preprocessor Output.
.PPP Serif PagePlus Publication.
.PPS Microsoft PowerPoint Slideshow.

.PPT Microsoft PowerPoint presentation.

.PPX Serif PagePlus publication.
.PPZ Microsoft PowerPoint Packaged Presentation.

.PS2 File to support the Micro Channel Architecture in 386 Enhanced mode.
.PSD Adobe Photoshop image file.

.PST Post Office Box file used with Microsoft Outlook usually mailbox.pst unless named otherwise.
.PWA Password agent file.
.PWD Password file.
.PWF ProCite Workforms
.PWL Password file used in Windows 95 and Windows 98 is stored in the Windows directory.
.PWP Photoworks image file
.PWZ PowerPoint wizard
.QIC Windows backup file
.QT Quick Time Movie File
.QXD Quark Express file
.QXL Quark Xpress element library
.QXT Quark Xpress template file
.RA Real Audio file.
.RAM Real Audio file.
.RAR Compressed file similar to .ZIP uses different compression program to extract. See our recommended download page for a program that can be used to extract .RAR files.
.RAS File extension used for raster graphic files.

.RD1 Descent registered level file

.RD3 Ray Dream designer graphics file / CorelDraw 3D file
.RD4 Ray Dream designer graphics file
.RD5 Ray Dream designer graphics file
.RDB TrueVector rules database
.RDF Resource description framework file / Chromeleon report definition
.RDL Descent registered level file / RadioDestiny radio stream

.RDX Reflex data file
.REC Sound file used with Windows Sound Recorder.

.RLE Microsoft Windows Run Length Encoded (Run Length Encoded (bitmap format) file that contains the actual screen logo).
.RMI Microsoft RMID sound file.
.RPB Automotive diagnostic file.
.RPD Rapidfile database
.RPM Red Hat Package Manager / RealMedia Player file.

.RPT Various Report file
.RTF Rich Text Format file
.RWZ Microsoft Outlook rules wizard file

.SAV File that usually contains saved information such as a saved game.
.SC2 Maps used in Sim City 2000.

.SCP Dialup Networking script file.
.SCR Source files for the .INI files, or sometimes may be used as screen savers.
.SD Sound Designer I audio file
.SD2 Sound Designer II flattened file / Sound Designer II data fork file / SAS database file
.SDA StarOffice drawing file / SoftCuisine data archive
.SDC StarOffice spreadsheet
.SDD StarOffice presentation
.SDF Standard data format file / Schedule data file / System file format / Autodesk mapguide spatial data file
.SDK Roland S-series floppy disk image
.SDL SmartDraw library
.SDN Small archive
.SDR SmartDraw drawing
.SDS StarOffice chart file / Raw MIDI sample dump standard file
.SDT SmartDraw template
.SDV Semicolon divided value file
.SDW Sun Microsystems StarOffice file document file similar to the Microsoft Office .DOC file.
.SDX MIDI sample dump standard files compacted by SDX
.SEA Short for Self Extracting Archive. Compressed file used with the Macintosh.
.SH Archive file
.SH3 Harvard (now Serif) presentation file
.SHB Corel Background file
.SHG Hotspot Editor Hypergraphic
.SHK Macintosh Compressed Archive file
.SHM WordPerfect Shell Macro
.SHP 3D Studio Shapes File / other 3D related file
.SHR Archive file
.SHS Shell scrap object file
.SHW Corel presentation / WordPerfect Slide Show / Show File
.SLK Multiplan file.
.SND Sound Clip file / Raw unsigned PCM data / AKAI MPC-series sample / NeXT sound / Macintosh sound resource file
.SNG MIDI song
.SNM Netscape Mail
.SNO SNOBOL program file
.SNP Snapview snapshot file
.SUM Summary file.
.SWF Macromedia Flash file.
.SWP Extension used for the Windows Swap File usually Win386.Swp. This file is required by Windows and generally can grow very large in size sometimes up to several hundred megs. This file is used to swap information between currently running programs and or memory. If this file is deleted from the computer Windows will be unable to load and will need to be reinstalled.
.SYS System and peripheral drivers.
.TDF Trace Definition File used with OS/2
.TGA Targa file
.TIF Tag Image Format that includes most 24-bit color.
.TLB Remote automation truelib files / OLE type library / Visual C++ type library
.TLD Tellix file
.TLE NASA two-line element set
.TLP Microsoft project timeline fie

.TLT Trellix web design file
.TLX Trellix data file
.TMP Temporary files.
.TRM Windows Terminal.
.TXT Text file that can be read from windows of from DOS by using the Edit, Type, or Edlin.
.UNI MikMod (UniMod) format file / Forcast Pro data file
.UNK Unknown file type, sometimes used when a file is received that cannot be identified
.UNX Text file generally associated with UNIX.

.URL File used with some browsers such as Internet Explorer linking you to different web pages. Internet Shortcut.
.VB VBScript file
.VBA vBase file
.VBD ActiveX file
.VBE VBScript encoded script file
.VBG Visual Basic group project file
.VBK VisualCADD backup file
.VBL User license control file
.VBP Visual Basic project file
.VBR Remote automation registration files
.VBS Microsoft Visual Basic Script file for quick programs and in some cases can be used as a virus file.
.VBW Visual Basic project workplace
.VBX Visual Basic extension file
.VBZ Wizard launch file
.VC VisiCalc Spreadsheet file.
.VCD VisualCADD Drawing file.
.VCE Natural MicroSystems voice file.
.VCF vCard File / Vevi Configuration file.
.VCS Microsoft Outlook vCalander file.

.VCT FoxPro class library.
.VCW Microsoft Visual C++ workbench information file.

.VCX FoxPro class library.
.VDA Targa bitmap
.VDD Short for Virtual Device Driver. Additional information can be found here.

.VDO VDOScript file
.VDX No such file extension - Likely you meant to .vxd
.VM Virtual Machine / Virtual Memory file.
.VMM Virtual Machine (Memory Manager) file.
.VMF Ventura font characteristics file / FaxWorks audio file
.VS2 Roland-Bass transfer file.
.VSD Visio drawing.
.VSL GetRight download list file.
.VSS Visio stencil.
.VST Video Template / Truevision Vista graphic / Targa Bitmap/
.VSW Visio workspace file.
.VXD Windows system driver file allowing a driver direct access to the Windows Kernel, allowing for low level access to hardware.
.WAB Microsoft Outlook Express personal address book.

.WAD File first found in IdSoftware games such as DOOM, Quake, as well as most new games similar to these.
.WAV Sound files in Windows open and played with sound recorder.

.WB1 Quattro Pro Notebook
.WB2 Quattro Pro Spreadsheet
.WBF Microsoft Windows Batch File

.WBK Wordperfect document / workbook
.WBT Winbatch batch file
.WCD Wordperfect macro token list
.WCM Microsoft Works data transmission file / Wordperfect Macro

.WCP Wordperfect product information description
.WDB Microsoft Works database

.WEB Web source code file
.WFM dBASE Form object
.WFN CorelDRAW font
.WFX Winfax data file
.WG1 Lotus 1-2-3 worksheet

.WG2 Lotus 1-2-3 for OS/2 worksheet

.WID Ventura publisher width table
.WIN Foxpro - dBASE window file
.WIZ Microsoft Publisher page wizard

.WK1 Lotus 1-2-3 all versions / LotusWorks spreadsheet.

.WK3 Lotus 1-2-3 for Windows /Lotus 1-2-3 Rel.3.

.WKS Lotus 1-2-3 Rel lA,2.0,2.01, also file used with Microsoft Works.

.WLG Dr. Watson log file.

.WMA Windows Media Audio file.
.WMF Windows Metafile. Also see WMF dictionary definition.

.WMZ Windows Media Player theme package file.
.WPD WordPerfect Windows/DOS.
.WPG WordPerfect Graphical files Windows/DOS.
.WPM WordPerfect Macro file.
.WPS MS Works word processor Windows/DOS.
.WRI Windows Write.
.WRK Lotus 1-2 31.0,1.01,1.1/ Symphony 1,1.01.
.WRI Symphony l.1,1.2,2 / Microsoft Write file.
.XIF Wang image file / Xerox image file
.XLB Microsoft Excel File.

.XLS Microsoft Excel File.

.XM Sound file / Fast tracker 2 extended module
.XML Extensible markup language file.
.XNK Exchange shortcut
.XOT Xnetech job output file
.XPM X picsmap graphic
.XQT SuperCalc macro sheet
.XRF Cross Reference
.XR1 Epic MegaGames Xargon File

.XSL XML Style sheet
.XTB LocoScript external translation table
.XWD X Windows dump file

.XWF Yamaha XG Works file
.XXE Xxencoded file
.XY XYWrite text file
.XY3 XYWrite text file
.XY4 XYwrite IV document
.XYP XYwrite III plus document
.XYW XYwrite Windows 4.0 document
.Y Amiga YABBA compressed file archive
.Y01 Paradox index file
.Y02 Paradox index file
.Y03 Paradox index file
.Y04 Paradox index file
.Y05 Paradox index file
.Y06 Paradox index file
.Y07 Paradox index file
.Y08 Paradox index file
.Y09 Paradox index file
.YUV Yuv graphics file
.YZ YAC compressed file archive.
.Z Compressed file that can hold thousands of files. To extract all the files Pkzip or Winzip will need to be used. UNIX / Linux users use the compress / uncompress command to extract these files.
.ZIP Compressed file that can hold thousands of files. To extract all the files Pkzip or Winzip will need to be used.

Part your HardDisk

Partitioning Your Harddisk With Fdisk
Partitioning your HardDisk

Partitioning involves creating logical units on your hard drive that are then addressed as different drive letters. Not only does it help to organize your data (program files on one drive, games on another, documents on another) but also to speed up your PC. This is so because the drive head has to move a lesser distance for accessing data within one partition. You can also have different filesystems and OSs on the same hard drive.

Partitioning can be done using ‘fdisk’ in DOS/Windows 9x or ‘disk management’ in Windows 2000/ NT/XP. We will describe the procedure for fdisk, since disk management is GUI driven and the basics otherwise remain the same. While several other commercial packages like Partition Magic are available, these utilities (fdisk, computer management) are bundled with their respective OSs. You need a bootable floppy with fdisk.exe, format.com, and sys. com utilities. Before starting, decide how many partitions you want to create and their sizes. You can create one primary and one extended partition using the DOS fdisk. The extended partition can then have multiple logical partitions. Boot your machine using the bootable disk, and do the following.

Run fdisk. The utility will show you a numbered menu from where you can create, view, or delete partitions
The utility first asks you whether you want to enable large disk support. Type Y (for yes) and press enter if your hard-drive capacity is more than 4 GB. Large disk support creates a FAT32 partition, which can be greater than 2 GB
Select the first option from fdisk menu to create a primary partition. Specify the partition size in megabytes or percentage size when prompted for it
Similarly, create an extended partition. Extended partitions by themselves do not appear as drive letters. Instead, logical partitions must be created in them, which are then assigned drive letters
Exit fdisk and reboot the computer
Fdisk automatically assigns drive letters to all the partitions. You’ll need to format each partition in order to use it. Use format.com for the same
Your hard drive is now ready for taking an OS.

Minggu, 04 Januari 2009

how to make a VCD from a DivX

Tools required: Latest Virtual dub, TMPGEnc and Nero ( and the DivX codecs.)


Download all tools, Be sure to install DivX 3.11 DivX4 and the latest DivX5 codecs.

Extracting the audio : Start Virtualdub. Open your video File->Open video file.(if you get any warnings just ignore them because you won't edit the video just extract the audio)

Select File->File Information and note the fps as the video source fps because you will need it later.

Select under Audio->Full processing mode.

Select Audio->Compression and select <No compression (PCM)>

Select Audio->Conversion.

Change the the Sampling rate to 44100Hz if you are going to make VCD or SVCD MPEGs.

Save the wav by clicking on File->Save WAV...the wav will be a huge audio uncompressed video file(about 10 MB/minute.


Start TMPEnc. Press cancel if the Project Wizard comes.

Press Browse… and select the DivX file as Video source input.

Now you press the Browse button for choosing the Audio source input and use the saved wav file.

Press load and load the file which in the Template directory of TMPGenc.

If the video source fps is 29,970 load VideoCD (NTSC).mcf

If the video source fps is 23,970 load VideoCD (NTSCFilm).mcf

If the video source fps is 25,000 load VideoCD (PAL).mcf

If the video source fps is anything else else just load NTSC if you live in US or Japan and PAL if you live anywhere else.

Note if you live in US or Japan and get problem playing PAL, often causing black and white TV playback problems, then first check if you can change to PAL on your TV or DVD Player if not then instead convert it to NTSC by loading the VideoCD(NTSC) template.

Note if you live Europe and the rest of the world and get problem playing NTSC or NTSCFilm, often causing black and white TV playback problems, then first check if you can change to PAL on your TV or DVD Player if not convert it to PAL by loading the VideoCD(Pal) template.

Press Settings and choose Advanced.

Select Full screen (keep aspect ratio) under Video arrange method to keep the same aspect ratio(widescreen,fullscreen) as the video source(if you have a widescreen movie and you want it to be in fullscreen select No margin(keep aspect ratio).

Select Source range and double-click on it with the mouse.

In the next dialog you can choose the source range. This process depends on the DivX file. If the DivX file is less than 80min (for a 80min/700mb CDR) then you do not have to split the file to two CDs. Also if the DivX file is already in two parts you have just to convert the first file and then the second. But if there should be the case that the movie is in one file over 80minutes long then it is necessary to select the source range. In this new dialog you put the horizontal scrollbar to the middle of the selection so that you will get the same length on the first CD as on the second. After you selected the middle do you have press Set end frame. A new value should be under End Frame. This value you should notice somewhere for the encoding of the second part. Of course the start frame must be 0.

After pressing ok, you only have to select the output file name. I prefer the movie name with the CD number (e.g. Ghost in the Shell CD1) for the burning.

Now encode the file by pressing the Start-Button.

While encoding you can select File->Preview(it won't effect the encoding) to see how the output will be, it it looks wrong(widescreen or fullscreen) you can stop the encoding and start over and change especially the Settings->Advanced->Video arange method.)

If you only want to burn the movie on one CD jump to the burning guide else follow the next points.

Repeat the third, forth and fifth point. In the source range dialog you now use as Start frame the noticed value and move with the horizontal scrollbar to the end of the movie.

After pressing Set end frame, press two times OK.

Now select the output filename for the second file. (e.g. Ghost in the Shell CD2) and encode it.

After the encoding is done and you did all right, you should have for every CD a file.


Launch Nero.Close the Wizard. Select File->New.

1. Select VideoCD

2. Select PAL or NTSC depending what format your source MPEG is in.

3. And hit New.

1. Locate your .mpg and drag it(see picture below). Remember that you can add several .mpgs also, each mpg will be a own track on the VCD and you can add data files also, just drag them to any folder.

2. Check the time. It should be the same as in the movie.

3. Rename the CD to anything you like by clicking F2 on NEW.

4. Select File->Write CD.

don't know about everyone else.. but the only options i choose on tmpgenc to make mpeg-1 files are either NTSC film 23.976, or NTSC video 29.97 fps..

i also live in the u.s. so i do all of mine accordingly.. why do you save the wave file with virtual dub.. or should i say, why do you even process the divx file with vdub.. yeah if it is your last resort and the divx for some reason doesn't open in tmpgenc.. i've got 180+ Divx movies, some downloaded mostly ripped, never had a problem encoding them with tmpgenc plus.

just seems like you are going from your a$$ to your elbow to do this.

1. take divx movie (120 minutes long for example).. open with vdub.. find a keyframe about halfway through the film, preferrably at a scene change.

choose "SET SELECTION START" from the EDIT menu.. scroll all the way to the end of the film, choose "SET SELECTION END"... hit DELETE or choose "DELETE SELECTION", all from the EDIT menu

2. Now you have 1 half of your movie. under the VIDEO menu, choose "DIRECT STREAM COPY", also make sure that under AUDIO is going to generate a "DIRECT STREAAM COPY". Then go to FILE and choose "SAVE as AVI..."

on a newer computer this will take less than 2 minutes..

3. When it is complete, the quickest way to proceed is to just click on FILE / "OPEN VIDEO FILE". at the beginning of the clip, choose "SET SELECTION START" again, snap back to the keyframe (half way through the film) which you cut half the film off at and choose "SET SELECTION END". DELETE... FILE / "SAVE AS AVI..." save as the other half of film..

once again, will usually take less than 2 minutes...

4. choose option accordingly, this next part can be important.. (i'm going to give the rest of the instructions as if you were making ntsc movie)

since you want to make a standard mpeg-1 file, choose NTSC FILM or NTSC VIDEO.. BROWSE for your file, then hit NEXT, then it OTHER SETTINGS / ADVANCED tab ... now there is an option that says "VIDEO ARRANGE METHOD".. if you are making a fullscreen movie, lleave on FULLSCREEN.. if you are encoding a widescreen movie, choose "FULL SCREEN (KEEP ASPECT RATIO).. OK / NEXT / NEXT (you get the point)

basically takes 1 step out of the tutorial above.. the instructions for nero appear to be correct.. but here's another tip..

dvd burners are becoming more and more popular and even i got one now, like many of you do. tired of old vcd's or wanna encode a VCD standard DVD with nearly 9 hours of video (but same quality as normal 80 minute VCD),

if this is the case, make sure you encode your DivX files as "NTSC VIDEO 29.97 FPS".. even if source is 23 fps... and once you have 3 or 4 movies, get yourself a proggy called TMPGENC DVD AUTHOR.. make a track for each movie.. and you got yourself a dvd with 3 or 4 average length movies on 1 dvd (with menus if you like) that is WAY MORE COMPATIBLE than a VCD..

do a search for the keyword VCD-DVD and i posted a more descriptive tutorial on how to do this..

how to make a new web site

how to make a new web site


easy and simple to make a web blog fast to try.......




Colour Palletes


HTMLlock <---Need



well, if you want text seperate from image, you could just do this:

<table width="100%" height="100%" border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0">


your text here, it's totally fun, yeah yeah yeah


<img src="your picture here">



if you want to have the image on the left side, and text on the right side, just reverse the code like so:

<table width="100%" height="100%" border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0">

<td valign="bottom" align="left">

<img src="your picture here">



your text here, it's totally fun, yeah yeah yeah



How To Make A Kvcd

how to make a kvcd or in other words how to get 700meg avi file down to about 450megs to make

a vcd without any picture loss

so youve download a movie its in avi format you want to watch it on your dvd player so

you reencode it it comes out to about 1100 maybe 1200 megs so you got to split it and save on

2 disks well the following tut will show you how to do it on one disk

first you are going to need some tools







and some dlls







put the above dlls in the same folder as heada3che





put these 2 in the same folder

you will have to have nero as well but im hoping you have that already if not it on this forum


again its on this forum

you will need some templates



right click all the pal templates if your dvd player is pal or ntsc if ntsc

save them to the template folder in the tmpegnc folder

so to begin

open virtualdub

goto file

open video file

locate the avi file you want to convert

if you get a warning ignore it

click the audio button at the top

make sure source audio and direct stream copy have a black dot next to it

goto file

save wav

now you have to call this with a .ac3 extension

for example view from the top.ac3

i would save this in the same file your avi is

so youve named it press save

box will open let it do its thing this is taking the sound from the film

now press audio and select no audio

you should have a black dot next to no audio and direct stream copy

goto video

select direct stream copy

goto file save as avi

save the file what you want again put in the same folder as the original avi

to make life easier i call mine the film title no sound ie viewfromthetopnosound

press save

this is now saving the film without sound

you can now close virtualdub

open besweet

scary looking box appears

dont worry heres what to do

at the besweet.exe locate the besweet folder it will show besweet.exe in the enter file name box

click on this and at the bottom it will say valid press ok

now goto input and find the ac3 file we just made you will need to change the enter file name from .Lst to .ac3

double click on the ac3 file you made and at the bottom it will say valid press ok

now looking at the gui make sure Use ac3 decoder is tick

downconvert sample rate is ticked

in the toolame dropdown box make sure it says mp2 leave the rest alone

now press copy command to clipboard

goto start


and right click paste

press ok

if all the settings are correct a black box will open and the ac3 will be transcoding to mp2

if not check the boxes are ticked

if ok leave it to do its thing

once the black box has disappered close besweet

open heada3che

hopefully you put all the dlls in the heada3che folder other wise you will get error messages

so make sure you do that

done it ok lets go

press source file

find the new mp2 file we just made

change the destination format to mp2

press start

thats it once its finished close headac3he

for your info

things are going to start looking messy inside your folder so if you want

you can delete some things

goto the folder where youre original avi file is

you can delete the ac3 file

and the mp2 file without the .2 in it

ie you will have two file names the same one with .2 on the end keep this one

this is so we dont get confused later

open tmpegnc

close the wizard if it opens

press the video source browse button

find the file we made with nosound on the end ie viewfromthetopnosound

now if you had gone to the kvcd page and downloaded all the templates this will help

if not go do that now

done it right lets go

now im afraid im not in front of your pc doing this for you so i hope i explain well

press load

you will see a load of files in front of you some starting with kvcd

right this is trial and error stuff now pick the first one begining with kvcd highlight it press open

now press start what will happen is the preview box in front of you will start encoding

now depending on the make up of the original avi file will effect the outcome of the finished film

so if you look at the box and all you see is a tiny box with film thats the size it will come out

if it looks weird press stop and reload a different template the best result is one that looks like widescreen

i hope that made sense

just press start and overwrite the file

any way let it do its thing depending on your pc specs depends how long this takes

so lets assume its done

press file mpeg tools the first box should be simple multiplex press the video input browse button

and find the new file we just made it will have a m1v extension

press the audio input browse button find the mp2 file with the .2 in the title the output

box will be automatically set to mpeg

press run

let it do its thing

close tmpgenc

open nero

select vcd

untick the create standard compliant cd

press new

find the new file we have made it will be in the original avi folder but will have a mpeg extension

now you have to drag this into the left box dont right click and copy to compliation

a box will appear and a blue line will go across if a warning comes up with not being a compliant vcd ignore carry on

press burn and burn at the speed you want

once finished press the ok box

press done the disk will come out and now to test

put it in your dvd player and hay presto the film kicks in

depending if your dvd player can play vcds that is


How To Make 5cds, 10cds Or 2dvds From Official Dow, These are same as Mandrake PowerPack+

Download the full official tree. It comes in at over 5 gig. The full tree includes the usual mandrake, 3 gig of extra apps under contrib and 330meg of java apps under contrib/jpackage.

After downloading I have successfully created 4 versions including the Hard Drive Installation.

1) Hard Drive/Network/FTP Install (same thing)

2) 10 CD version including everything

3) 5 CD Version (use to be 4 CDs. This will eventually be the ISO download)

4) 2 DVD Version which includes everything int the 10 CD Version.

Additionally I have discovered that Mandrake is stressing everyone for no apparent reason. The much talked about 8 meg boot.iso file that is needed to be able to boot and chose your method of installation, is no different from the regular boot files that come on CD1 of any version.

The only thing you have to do is to edit the file "isolinux.cfg" in the isolinux folder. Inside the file, remove all instances of "automatic=method:cdrom" and save the file. Then create the images for whichever "version" of mdk10 that you choose. To create the different versions that I have listed above you have to do 2 things first:

1) edit the "hdlist" file in the "Mandrake/base" folder. In this file you will find a list of all the hdlist.cz files needed to build a particular version. Remove the 3 lines for "SRPM" files. Now depending on which version you want to create, the 10CD and the DVD versions will have 3 lines.

a) hdlist.cz Mandrake/RPMS Installation CD

hdlist2.cz Mandrake/RPMS2 Contrib CD

c) hdlist3.cz Mandrake/RPMS3 Jpackage.org

take note of the paths above. if you downloaded the whole tree like I did, you will have these folders. The RPMS folder is the standard 4 or 5 CD download version. The RPMS2 and RPMS3 folders added to the RPMS folder make the 10CD and DVD version. So to make the 5CD version, remove the last two lines. Dont forget to backup the original "hdlists" file.

2) To make the 10 CD or 2 DVD version, use the "mkcd"command below. Use 716800000 discsize for the 10CD version and 4000000000 for the 2 DVD version. When the command finishes, the images will be in the directory you specified after the -t option.

To make the 5CD version, move the folders "RPMS2" and RPMS3" someplace safe and don't forget to remove the last two lines in the "hdlists" file as described above. The RPMS2 and RPMS3 folders are only links so it should take no time at all to move them. Then use 716800000 discsize and run the "mkcd" command. Don't forget to move the RPMS2 and RPMS3 folders back to their original location when you finish your 5CD images.

Also rememeber that you will need plenty of disc space if you wantto keep all the images for all version on your hard drive. I have the 10CD, 5CD, 2 DVD and the HD install files all on my hard rive and they take up 23GIG.

mkcd --discsize 716800000 -t ./5CD-Version -a -s ./hdinstall

--discsize is the size of the image you want to make in bytes. the above figure is for a 700M CD. I used 4000000000 (9 zeroes) to make 2 DVDs.

-t <path to where yu want to make the images>

-a means automatic creation based on the hdlist files and the downloaded directory structure. It keeps you from having to use many other ugly options on the command line.

-s <source directory of mdk10> this is the top fodler not thr RPM folder. This top folder will have the "Mandrake" folder in it.

original Link



How to Install and run Windows CE on your USB Stick

How to: Install and run Windows CE on your USB Stick

Portable Windows CE is a 'launcher' for the Windows CE device emulator that can run an emulator-based image from a USB keychain.

Download the Windows CE 5.0 Device Emulator.



Change "Mcft" in link to what it is supposed to be icon_wink.gif

Extract the emulator to a folder on your hard drive by running "setup /a". The installer will prompt you to specify a directory to extract to . For example: D:\PortableCE

Download this launcher script:



Copy the following launcher script to the directory you extracted the setup to. You'll need to rename the file from launchce.cmd.txt to launchce.cmd

Once you have that set up, just copy the entire D:\PortableCE folder over to your USB keychain.

To launch the emulator, just plug in your USB keychain, navigate to the PortableCE folder, and run launchce.cmd. You should (hopefully) have the emulator fire up.